Release information: SILVA 95

Version 95 of the SSU and LSU databases as released 14.07.2008

 

SSU LSU
Parc

682,303

(+ 75,424)

117,756

(+ 8953)

Ref

279,862

(+ 41,902)

11,124

(+ 477)

 

Former statistics:

Opens internal link in current windowSILVA 89, Opens internal link in current windowSILVA 90, Opens internal link in current windowSILVA 91, Opens internal link in current windowSILVA 92, Opens internal link in current windowSILVA 93

SILVA 94

Small Subunit rRNA Database

SSU Parc (Web database & ARB file) contains all aligned sequences with an alignment quality value and a basepair score equal and above 30. All sequences with a Pintail value < 50 or an alignment quality value < 75 have been assigned to color group 1 in ARB (red). All Living Tree Project typestrains have been assigned to color group 2 in ARB (light blue). No further sequence curation has been applied.

To create SSU Ref (ARB file), additionally all sequences below 1,200 bases for Bacteria and Eukarya and below 900 bases for Archaea or an alignment quality value below 50 have been removed from SSUParc. A guide tree was calculated by adding all sequences to the tree_1200 of SILVA release 94 which is based on tree_1000 from the ssujan04 release. For tree calculation, highly variable positions were removed for Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya with the respective position variability filters. Phyla and most of the classes for Bacteria and Archaea have been organized according to the Bergey's taxonomic outline. After manually inspection of the tree, around 280 sequences have been removed due to long branches. Position variability filters for Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya have been calculated and added to the dataset. Please take into account that also sequences below an alignment quality value of 75 need further attention. All sequences with a Pintail value < 50 or an alignment quality value < 75 have been assigned to color group 1 in ARB (red). All Living Tree Project typestrains have been assigned to color group 2 in ARB (light blue). Before using the alignment for extensive phylogenetic reconstructions all sequences should be checked carefully.

Large Subunit rRNA Databases

LSU Parc (Web database & ARB file) contains all aligned sequences with an alignment quality value and a basepair score equal and above 30. No further curation has been applied, only a guide tree has been added by the most parsimonious addition of around 9,000 sequences to the LSUParc guide tree from SILVA 95.

Additionally, for LSU Ref (ARB file) all sequences below 1,900 bases have been removed, a guide tree was calculated based on the tree_1900 of SILVA release 95, and basic filters have been added. All sequences with an alignment quality value < 75 have been assigned to color group 1 in ARB (red). Please take into account that the SEED consisted only of around 2,800 sequences and there is no guaranty that well aligned close relatives have always been available. We would recommend additional manual curation before using it for extensive phylogenetic reconstructions.

Quality Values

The length and colours of the bars give a first indication on the sequence and alignment quality as well as the risk for sequence anomalies based on Pintail analysis. After downloading the sequences as an ARB file, sequences that need attention can be selected by searching for low quality (alignment, sequence) or Pintail values in the corresponding ARB database fields. A full description of the colour code and all database fields available in the ARB files can be found in the Opens internal link in current windowFAQ section. Taking into account the rich set of sequence associated information that comes along with every SILVA sequence, user designed subdatabases can be easily generated.

Alternative Names

All names of validly described species in the SSU and LSU databases have been checked for changes (basonyms, synonyms and orthographical corrections) against the DSMZ "Nomenclature up to date" catalogue (Opens external link in new windowhttp://www.dsmz.de/download/bactnom/names.txt) released in June 2008.

Alternative Taxonomies and Type Strain & Genome Information

Alternative Taxonomies

Besides the EMBL Taxonomy, alternative classifications taken from the greengenes and the RDP II project are also available in SILVA. On the webpage, the user can switch using the Taxonomy menu. In ARB, the different taxonomies can be found in the fields: embl_tax, gg_tax and rdp_tax for EMBL, greengenes and RDP II, respectively. The corresponding *_name fields shows the respective sequence name for each entry.  Please take into account that both greengenes and RDP II provide only a subset of the sequences hosted by SILVA. If no taxonomic mapping to greengenes or RDP II was available they are assigned as "unclassified" and the respective sequence name equals EMBL. For the LSU datasets, there are no alternative taxonomies available.

Type strain and cultured information has been added to the field strain and is indicated by [T] and [C]. Several sources have been used to compile the information: The Opens external link in new windowStraininfo.net bioportal, The Ribosomal Database Project II (9.61) and the Living Tree Project which provides manually curated information compliant with Euzebys "Opens external link in new windowList of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature".

Genome information is provided by the "Opens external link in new windowGenomic Standards Consortium" in cooperation with Peter Sterk from Opens external link in new windowEMBL.

Detailed information about the corresponding identifiers and target databases can be found in the table to the right.

The identifiers can be used for data retrieval by searching in the strain field see Opens internal link in current windowFAQ.

RNAmmer

RNAmmer is a computational predictor for the major rRNA species (SSU, LSU) from all three domains of life. The program uses hidden Markov models trained on data from the European ribosomal RNA database project. SILVA runs RNAmmer on all whole (meta)genome shotgun data of the EMBL archive to complement the existing predictions. All predictions are marked with RNAmmer in the ann_src_field. More information about RNAmmer can be found in the Opens external link in new windowpaper.

Thanks to Felix Schlesinger for RNAmmer extensions and adaptations.

SEED

All rRNA sequences have been aligned based on a completely manually re-checked SEED alignment of 51,601 rRNA sequences for SSU and 2,868 rRNA sequences for LSU. The SSU alignment is based on the official ssu_jan04 release of the ARB Project. The SSU SEED alignment has been considerably improved for Archaea by manual addition of more than 1,000 sequences by Katrin Knittel. All SSU Eukaryotic sequences (18S) have been cross-checked by Wolfgang Ludwig before their addition to the SEED. Most of the bacterial sequences have also undergone a curation process carried out by the SILVA Team. We would rate our SSU SEED alignment for all Bacteria and Archaea as good and for Eukarya as reasonable.

The LSU alignment was provided by Wolfgang Ludwig and has not been released before SILVA. It was cross-checked by the SILVA Team before using it as the SEED for automatic alignment.  Bacteria and Archaea could be rated as good. The Eukaryotes need definitely further attention.

Update Files

Update files are not longer provided. Because of the constant improvement we do on the SILVA pipeline we recommend to always take the latest version of SILVA and update it with your personal sequences. The difference between SILVA and your own database can be easily determined using the Opens internal link in current windowARB Merge Tool.

Statistics

Sequence Retrieval and Processing

SSU LSU
candidates (total) 1,346,740 489,711
RNAmmer63043987
< 300 bases 507,317 327,037
> 2% ambiguities 10,010 2695
> 2% homopolymers 24,321 6187
> 5% vector contamination 10,982 8222
overlap RNAmmer & EMBL672536
rejected by SINA 65,216 14,299

alignment quality and bp

score < 30

45,364

12,804

Sequences have been retrieved from EMBL Opens external link in new windowRelease 95 (June 08) using a complex keyword search procedure and sequence based search with Opens external link in new windowRNAmmer for all whole (meta)genome shotgun (wgs) sequences. Cross checks with RDP II indicated no loss of primary data. Most of the sequences rejected by the new SINAligner were classified as not ribosomal RNA sequences by manual inspection or the remaining aligned sequence fragments were below 300 bases.

1. Growth of the ribosomal RNA databases since 1992

 
Blue: RDP II, orange: SILVA SSUParc based on the EMBL release 95

2. Length Distribution (SSU & LSU)

Red: raw data, black: the quality checked & aligned SSUParc sequences

Red: raw data, black: the quality checked & aligned LSUParc sequences

3. Sequence quality in relation to length in SSUParc 90

Initiates file download

Basic statistics for the SILVA databases, release 95

    SSUParc   SSURef   LSUParc   LSURef  
Version   95   95   95   95  
Total   682,383   279,862   117,756   11,124  
Bacteria   550,918   230,180   10,627   6411  
Archaea   30,535   10,138   188   178  
Eukarya   92,939   39,544   106,641   4535  
Cultured #   23,043   18,610   9868   1752  
Typestrains #   9758   9699   326   316  
                   
# according to   straininfo.net   and the Living   Living Tree   Project  

Strain Identifiers

Source Information Tag Datasets
EMBL Typestrains (t) SSU, LSU
Straininfo.net Cultured s[C] SSU, LSU
Straininfo.net Typestrains s[T] SSU, LSU
Genomic Standards      
Consortium/EMBL Genomes (curated) e[G]  SSU, LSU
Living Tree Project  Typestrains (curated)  l[T] SSU
RDP II Typestrains r[T] SSU

New in Release 95

  • more environmental fields in the ARB/SILVA databases, see FAQs
  • introduction of MIENS, the Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence, see
  • a survey on Contextual Data Fields for rRNA - your opinion counts!
  • improved SINA aligner
  • manual curated list of type strains, see Living Tree Project
  • improved list of genomes from EMBL
  • reduced unpacked file size of SSURef

Known Bugs

  • For about 16 sequences the Pintail values are missing